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Tycho's Supernova Remnant


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Tycho's Supernova Remnant
Supernova Remnant (超新星残骸)
SNR

別名 (Other names)
G120.1+01.4, SN 1572

星座 (Constellation)

カシオペア座 (Cas) (Cassiopeia)


距離 (Distance)
13,000光年 (13,000 light-years)

Tycho's Supernova Remnant is a supernova remnant located 13,000 light years from the Earth in the constellation Cassiopeia.

Tycho's Supernova Remnant : Picture

Tycho's Supernova Remnant
Tycho's Supernova Remnant
(C) X-ray: NASA/CXC/SAO; Infrared: NASA/JPL-Caltech; Optical: MPIA, Calar Alto, O. Krause et al.
What star created this huge puffball? Pictured above is the best multi-wavelength image yet of Tycho's supernova remnant, the result of a stellar explosion first recorded over 400 years ago by the famous astronomer Tycho Brahe. The above image is a composite of an X-ray image taken by the orbiting Chandra X-ray Observatory, an infrared image taken by the orbiting Spitzer Space Telescope, and an optical image taken by the 3.5-meter Calar Alto telescope located in southern Spain. The expanding gas cloud is extremely hot, while slightly different expansion speeds have given the cloud a puffy appearance. Although the star that created SN 1572, is likely completely gone, a star dubbed Tycho G, too dim to be easily discerned here, is being studied as the possible companion. Finding progenitor remnants of Tycho's supernova is particularly important because the supernova was recently determined to be of Type Ia. The peak brightness of Type Ia supernovas is thought to be well understood, making them quite valuable in calibrating how our universe dims distant objects.

Tycho's Supernova Remnant
Tycho's Supernova Remnant
(C) X-ray: NASA/CXC/Rutgers/K.Eriksen et al.; Optical: DSS)
A long Chandra observation of Tycho has revealed a pattern of X-ray "stripes" never seen before in a supernova remnant. The stripes are seen in the high-energy X-rays (blue) that also show the blast wave, a shell of extremely energetic electrons. Low-energy X-rays (red) show expanding debris from the supernova explosion. The stripes, seen to the lower right of this composite image that includes optical data from the Digitized Sky Survey, may provide the first direct evidence that a cosmic event can accelerate particles to energies a hundred times higher than achieved by the most powerful particle accelerator on Earth.

Schematic Illustration of the Tycho Stripes
Schematic Illustration of the Tycho Stripes
(C) NASA/CXC/M.Weiss
This illustration explains what scientists believe is occurring in the stripes in the Tycho supernova remnant. The blue, circular region on the left is a schematic representation of the outer shell making up the blast wave of the supernova remnant, with the lighter colored regions being the stripes. The upper panel shows a close-up of a region away from the stripes, where the black lines show tangled magnetic field lines and the red line shows an electron spiraling around one of these lines. Electrons with energies of a trillion electron volts, corresponding to energies about 7 times lower than the maximum energy reached by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), are responsible for the X-ray emission seen by Chandra. The middle panel shows a close-up of a faint stripe. Here, the magnetic fields are much more tangled and the particle motions are much more turbulent, producing higher energy X-ray emission. In the bright stripe the tangling of the magnetic fields and the turbulence is even higher. The spacing between the stripes corresponds to the radius of the spiraling motion of a proton with an energy over a hundred times larger than the LHC. The path of such a proton is shown in yellow. Very energetic particles like this do not radiate efficiently and cannot be detected with Chandra but are believed to be the origin of the most energetic cosmic rays in our galaxy.

Tycho's Supernova Remnant Tycho's Supernova Remnant with Scale Bar
Tycho's Supernova Remnant
(C) X-ray: NASA/CXC/SAO
Tycho's Supernova Remnant with Scale Bar
(C) X-ray: NASA/CXC/Rutgers/K.Eriksen et al.
Tycho's Supernova Remnant Tycho's Supernova Remnant
Tycho's Supernova Remnant
(C) X-ray: NASA/CXC/Rutgers/K.Eriksen et al.
This Chandra image shows the higher energy X-rays detected from the Tycho supernova remnant. These X-rays show the expanding blast wave from the supernova, a shell of extremely energetic electrons. Close-ups of two different regions are shown, region A containing the brightest stripes and region B with fainter stripes. The stripes are areas where the magnetic fields are much more tangled and the particle motion is much more turbulent than surrounding areas. Electrons become trapped in these regions and emit X-rays as they spiral around the magnetic field lines.

X-Rays From Tycho's Supernova Remnant Tycho's Supernova Remnant in X-ray
X-Rays From Tycho's Supernova Remnant
(C) SAO, CXC, NASA
Tycho's Supernova Remnant in X-ray
(C) ROSAT, MPE, NASA
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Tycho's Supernova Remnant : Movie

Tycho's Supernova Remnant in 60 Seconds
New research using Chandra data of the Tycho supernova remnant provides astronomers with clues to what triggered the original supernova explosion.

Tycho in 60 Seconds
Over four hundred years ago, the Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe studied the explosion of a star that later became known as Tycho's supernova.
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