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NGC 4038 and NGC 4039 (Antennae Galaxies)


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NGC 4038 and NGC 4039
Antennae Galaxies (触角銀河)
Gx SBm


別名 (Other names)
アンテナ銀河, Ringtail Galaxy, Antennae, IRAS 11593-1835, NGC 4038/4039, Arp 244, PGC 37967/37969, Caldwell 60/61

明るさ (Brightness)
10.3/10.4等級

星座 (Constellation)
からす座 (Crv) (Corvus)

距離 (Distance)
6,000万光年 (60 million light-years)

触角銀河 (しょっかくぎんが、Antennae Galaxies 、NGC 4038/NGC4039)はからす座にある銀河の対です。NGC4038及びNGC4039という二つの銀河が衝突しており、互いに潮汐力を及ぼし合うことで2本の長い腕状の構造が伸びているのが特徴。日本語ではアンテナ銀河とも呼ばれる。
この二つの銀河は共に1785年にウィリアム・ハーシェルによって発見された。

触角銀河は銀河衝突の途中の過程にある相互作用銀河の典型例。
NGC4038銀河群と呼ばれる銀河群に属し、この二つの銀河以外に5個の銀河がこの銀河群に属している。
触角銀河という名前は、二つの銀河が衝突した結果、恒星・星間ガス・星間塵からなる2本の長いテイルが銀河本体から伸びて昆虫の触角のような外観を呈していることに由来する。
二つの銀河の中心核は合体して一つの大きな銀河になる途上にある。
一般に、ほとんどの銀河はその寿命の間に少なくとも一度はこの触角銀河のような大きな衝突を経験すると考えられている。我々の銀河系も将来アンドロメダ銀河と衝突すると考えられており、その際にはこの銀河と同様に大規模な変形を受けるものと推定される。2004年にはNGC4038の中で超新星 SN 2004gt が観測された。

触角銀河の内部では、銀河衝突による衝撃波で星間ガスが強く圧縮されるため、星形成が活発に起こっている。
そのため、大量に生まれた若い大質量の恒星によって銀河全体が青い色を帯びている。また、これらの大質量星から放射される紫外線によって数多くのHII領域が形成されており、可視光の画像では鮮やかな赤色の星雲として写る。

Antennae Galaxies (NGC 4038 and NGC 4039) is an interacting galaxy located about 60 million light years from the Earth in the constellation Corvus.

NGC 4038 and NGC 4039 (Antennae Galaxies) : Picture

The Antennae
The Antennae
(C) Acquisition and data reduction - Andrey Oreshko (Elena Remote Observatory), Processing - Dietmar Hager (stargazer-observatory)
Some 60 million light-years away in the southerly constellation Corvus, two large galaxies collided. But the stars in the two galaxies, cataloged as NGC 4038 and NGC 4039, don't collide in the course of the ponderous event, lasting hundreds of millions of years. Instead, their large clouds of molecular gas and dust do, triggering furious episodes of star formation near the center of the cosmic wreckage. Spanning about 500 thousand light-years, this stunning view also reveals new star clusters and matter flung far from the scene of the accident by gravitational tidal forces. Of course, the suggestive visual appearance of the extended arcing structures gives the galaxy pair its popular name - The Antennae.

Spiral Galaxy NGC 4038 in Collision
Spiral Galaxy NGC 4038 in Collision
(C) Data Collection: Hubble Legacy Archive; Processing: Danny Lee Russell, NASA
This galaxy is having a bad millennium. In fact, the past 100 million years haven't been so good, and probably the next billion or so will be quite tumultuous. Visible on the upper left, NGC 4038 used to be a normal spiral galaxy, minding its own business, until NGC 4039, toward its right, crashed into it. The evolving wreckage, known famously as the Antennae, is pictured above. As gravity restructures each galaxy, clouds of gas slam into each other, bright blue knots of stars form, massive stars form and explode, and brown filaments of dust are strewn about. Eventually the two galaxies will converge into one larger spiral galaxy. Such collisions are not unusual, and even our own Milky Way Galaxy has undergone several in the past and is predicted to collide with our neighboring Andromeda Galaxy in a few billion years. The frames that compose this image were taken by the orbiting Hubble Space Telescope by professional astronomers to better understand galaxy collisions. These frames -- and many other deep space images from Hubble -- have since been made public, allowing an interested amateur to download and process them into this visually stunning composite.

NGC 4038 and NGC 4039
Colliding Galaxies NGC 4038 and NGC 4039
(C) Brad Whitmore (STScI), and NASA/ESA
This Hubble Space Telescope image provides a detailed look at a brilliant 'fireworks show' at the center of a collision between two galaxies. Hubble has uncovered over 1,000 bright, young star clusters bursting to life as a result of the head-on wreck.

Antennae Galaxy
Close-Up of Star Formation in Antennae Galaxy
(C) Brad Whitmore (STScI), and NASA/ESA
This is a close-up view of a head-on collision between two spiral galaxies, called the Antennae galaxies. The image is 1,500 light-years across. The image shows entrapped dust and gas funneled into the center of the galaxy.

These four close-up views are taken from a head-on collision between two spiral galaxies, called the Antennae galaxies, seen at image center. The scale bar at the top of each image is 1,500 light-years across.

The Antennae Spiral Galaxy NGC 4038 in Collision
The Antennae
(C) Andrey Oreshko
Spiral Galaxy NGC 4038 in Collision
(C) NASA
Antennae Galaxies NGC 4038 and NGC 4039 Antennae Galaxies NGC 4038 and NGC 4039
Antennae Galaxies NGC 4038 and NGC 4039
(C) NASA
Antennae Galaxies NGC 4038 and NGC 4039
(C) NASA
X-Rays From Antennae Galaxies Bright Star Knots in NGC4038
X-Rays From Antennae Galaxies
(C) NASA
Bright Star Knots in NGC4038
(C) NASA
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NGC 4038 and NGC 4039 (Antennae Galaxies) : Movie

Antennae in 60 Seconds
This beautiful new image shows two colliding galaxies as seen by NASA's Great Observatories.
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「ウィキペディア(wikipedia):フリー百科事典」より文章引用。
触角銀河. (2013, February 12). In Wikipedia.
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