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NGC 253 (Sculptor Galaxy)


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NGC 253
Sculptor Galaxy (ちょうこくしつ座銀河)
Spiral Galaxy (渦巻銀河)
Gx SBc


別名 (Other names)
PGC 2789, ESO 474-29, MCG -4-3-9, Caldwell 65, Silver Coin Galaxy, Silver Dollar Galaxy, UGCA 13

明るさ (Brightness)
7.3等級

星座 (Constellation)
ちょうこくしつ座 (Scl) (Sculptor)


距離 (Distance)
1,000万光年 (10 million light-years)

ちょうこくしつ座銀河 (Sculptor Galaxy)は、ちょうこくしつ座の方角にある渦巻銀河。
ちょうこくしつ座銀河はスターバースト銀河であり、急激な星形成の過程にある。

この銀河は、1783年、彗星の探索中にカロライン・ハーシェルによって発見された。
その約半世紀後、ジョン・ハーシェルは喜望峰で、18インチの反射望遠鏡を使って観測した。
彼は、とても明るく大きな壮大な天体である。その光はいくらか縞状であるが、この銀河には属していなさそうな4つの大きな天体と1つの非常に小さな天体の他には恒星は見られない。と記述した 。

シドニー郊外で働くバーナード・ミルズは、ちょうこくしつ座銀河は強い電波源でもあることを発見した。

超新星
超新星は、一般的にスターバースト銀河と関連があるが、ちょうこくしつ座銀河では、超新星は1つしか発見されていない。SN 1940Eと名付けられた超新星は、銀河核から約54°南西の方角にある。
この超新星は、1940年11月に発見された。

NGC 253 (Sculptor Galaxy) is a spiral galaxy located 10 million light years from the Earth in the constellation Sculptor.

NGC 253 (Sculptor Galaxy) : Picture

NGC 253: The Sculptor Galaxy
NGC 253: The Sculptor Galaxy
(C) Angus Lau
NGC 253 is not only one of the brightest spiral galaxies visible, it is also one of the dustiest. Discovered in 1783 by Caroline Herschel in the constellation of Sculptor, NGC 253 lies only about ten million light-years distant. NGC 253 is the largest member of the Sculptor Group of Galaxies, the nearest group to our own Local Group of Galaxies. The dense dark dust accompanies a high star formation rate, giving NGC 253 the designation of starburst galaxy. Visible in the above photograph is the active central nucleus, also known to be a bright source of X-rays and gamma rays.

NGC 253: Close Up
NGC 253: Close Up
(C) Hubble Legacy Archive, ESA, NASA; Processing and additional imaging - Robert Gendler
This dusty island universe is one of the brightest spiral galaxies in planet Earth's sky. Seen nearly edge-on, NGC 253 is only 13 million light-years away, the largest member of the Sculptor Group of galaxies, neighbor to our own local galaxy group. The detailed close-up view is a five frame mosaic based on data assembled from the Hubble Legacy Archive. Beginning on the left near the galaxy's core, the sharp panorama follows dusty filaments, interstellar gas clouds, and even individual stars toward the galaxy's edge at the right. The magnificent vista spans nearly 50,000 light-years. The frame at the far right has been compressed slightly to bring into view an intriguing pair of background galaxies. Designated a starburst galaxy because of its frantic star forming activity, NGC 253 features tendrils of dust rising from a galactic disk laced with young star clusters and star forming regions. NGC 253 is also known to be a strong source of high-energy x-rays and gamma rays, likely due to massive black holes near the galaxy's center.

NGC 253: Dusty Island Universe
NGC 253: Dusty Island Universe
(C) Star Shadows Remote Observatory and PROMPT/CTIO (Steve Mazlin, Jack Harvey, Rick Gilbert, and Daniel Verschatse)

NGC 253: Dusty Island Universe
NGC 253: Dusty Island Universe
(C) R. Jay GaBany (Cosmotography.com)

Spiral Galaxy NGC 253 Almost Sideways
Spiral Galaxy NGC 253 Almost Sideways
(C) Jean-Charles Cuillandre (CFHT), Hawaiian Starlight, CFHT

NGC 253: X-Ray Zoom
NGC 253: X-Ray Zoom
(C) K. Weaver (LHEA/ GSFC), et al.; X-ray Image: SAO, CXC, NASA; Optical Image: ESO
Astronomers now report that Chandra X-ray Observatory observations of galaxies known to be frantically forming stars show that these galaxies also contain luminous x-ray sources -- thought to be intermediate mass black holes and immense clouds of superheated gas. Take the lovely island universe NGC 253 for example. At distance of a mere 8 million light-years, NGC 253's prodigious starforming activity has been well studied using high-resolution optical images like the one seen here at lower left. Zooming in on this energetic galaxy's central region, Chandra's x-ray detectors reveal hidden details indicated in the inset at right. In the false-color image, x-ray hot gas clouds glow near the core and at least four very powerful x-ray sources lie within 3,000 light-years of the center of the galaxy. Much more luminous than black hole binary star systems in our own galaxy, these extreme x-ray sources may be gravitating toward NGC 253's center. As a result, NGC 253 and other similar starforming galaxies could ultimately develop a single, central, supermassive black hole, transforming their cores into quasars.

NGC 253 NGC 253
NGC 253
(C) Angus Lau
NGC 253
(C) Star Shadows Remote Observatory and PROMPT/CTIO
NGC 253 NGC 253
NGC 253
(C) R. Jay GaBany
NGC 253
(C) Jean-Charles Cuillandre, Hawaiian Starlight
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NGC 253 (Sculptor Galaxy) : Movie

Three-dimensional view of ALMA observations of the outflows from NGC 253
This video shows a three-dimensional visualisation of ALMA observations of cold carbon monoxide gas in the nearby starburst galaxy NGC 253 (The Sculptor Galaxy). The vertical axis shows velocity and the horizontal one distance across different parts of the central regions of the galaxy as the viewpoint rotates. The colours represent the intensity of the emission detected by ALMA, with pink being the strongest and red the weakest.
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「ウィキペディア(wikipedia):フリー百科事典」より文章引用。
ちょうこくしつ座銀河. (2013, March 10). In Wikipedia.
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