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Christmas Tree Cluster (NGC 2264)


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NGC 2264
Christmas Tree Cluster (クリスマスツリー星団)
Emission Nebula (散光星雲) + Open Cluster (散開星団)
Cone Nebula (コーン星雲)
Fox Fur Nebula (狐の毛皮星雲)
OC IV3pn


別名 (Other names)

OCL 495, LBN 911, Sh2-273, Sharpless 273, Sh 2-273

明るさ (Brightness)
4.1等級

星座 (Constellation)

いっかくじゅう座 (Mon) (Monoceros)

距離 (Distance)
2,700光年 (2,700 light-years)

コーン星雲(コーンせいうん、英:Cone Nebula )はNGC 2264を構成する4つの天体の一つで、HII領域。
いっかくじゅう座方向にある。
1785年12月26日にウィリアム・ハーシェルが発見し、ハーシェルによりH V.27と命名された。
コーン星雲は地球から800パーセク、つまり2,600光年先にある。

円錐形状(コーン)をしているためこの名で呼ばれている。日本語では「円錐星雲」と訳して呼ばれることもある。
主に古い年代の文献の中に「とうもろこし星雲」と呼称しているものがあるが、これは円錐 (Cone)と、とうもろこし (Corn)を混同した誤訳である。

コーン星雲の周りはクリスマスツリー星団 (Christmas Tree Cluster) が取り囲んでいる。
ニュージェネラルカタログの定義によるとNGC2264は星雲だけではなく、クリスマスツリー星団を含んだ呼称。

南はNGC2264の南端から、北は3.9等級で輝くクリスマスツリー星団の位置まで達している。
コーン星雲の北部はプロキオンとベテルギウスを結んだ線の中間位置にくる。

円錐形状は、冷たい水素分子から成る暗黒星雲部分と、NGC2264で最も輝いているいっかくじゅう座S星 (S Monocerotis) からのイオン化した水素を含む塵が光を発する輝線星雲からできている。
輝線星雲部分の長さは約7光年(角度にすると10分)であり、地球から2,700光年の距離にある。

Christmas Tree Cluster (NGC 2264) is an emission nebula located 2,700 light years from the Earth in the constellation Monoceros.

Christmas Tree Cluster (NGC 2264) : Picture

Fox Fur, a Unicorn, and a Christmas Tree
Fox Fur, a Unicorn, and a Christmas Tree
(C) R Jay Gabany
Clouds of glowing hydrogen gas fill this colorful skyscape in the faint but fanciful constellation Monoceros, the Unicorn. A star forming region cataloged as NGC 2264, the complex jumble of cosmic gas and dust is about 2,700 light-years distant and mixes reddish emission nebulae excited by energetic light from newborn stars with dark interstellar dust clouds. Where the otherwise obscuring dust clouds lie close to the hot, young stars they also reflect starlight, forming blue reflection nebulae. The wide mosaic spans about 3/4 degree or nearly 1.5 full moons, covering 40 light-years at the distance of NGC 2264. Its cast of cosmic characters includes the the Fox Fur Nebula, whose convoluted pelt lies at the upper left, bright variable star S Mon immersed in the blue-tinted haze just below the Fox Fur, and the Cone Nebula at the far right. Of course, the stars of NGC 2264 are also known as the Christmas Tree star cluster. The triangular tree shape traced by the stars appears sideways here, with its apex at the Cone Nebula and its broader base centered near S Mon.

In the Vicinity of the Cone Nebula
In the Vicinity of the Cone Nebula
(C) Subaru Telescope (NAOJ) & DSS; Assembly and Processing: Robert Gendler
Strange shapes and textures can be found in neighborhood of the Cone Nebula. The unusual shapes originate from fine interstellar dust reacting in complex ways with the energetic light and hot gas being expelled by the young stars. The brightest star on the right of the above picture is S Mon, while the region just below it has been nicknamed the Fox Fur Nebula for its color and structure. The blue glow directly surrounding S Mon results from reflection, where neighboring dust reflects light from the bright star. The red glow that encompasses the whole region results not only from dust reflection but also emission from hydrogen gas ionized by starlight. S Mon is part of a young open cluster of stars named NGC 2264, located about 2,500 light years away toward the constellation Monoceros. Even though it points right at S Mon, details of the origin of the mysterious geometric Cone Nebula, visible on the far left, remain a mystery.

A Fox Fur, a Unicorn, and a Christmas Tree
A Fox Fur, a Unicorn, and a Christmas Tree
(C) Rolf Geissinger

In the Vicinity of the Cone Nebula
In the Vicinity of the Cone Nebula
(C) Dieter Willasch (Astro-Cabinet)

In the Vicinity of the Cone Nebula
In the Vicinity of the Cone Nebula
(C) T. A. Rector (NRAO), NOAO, AURA, NSF

Cone Nebula
Cone Nebula Close-Up
(C) ACS Science & Engineering Team
Cones, pillars, and majestic flowing shapes abound in stellar nurseries where natal clouds of gas and dust are buffeted by energetic winds from newborn stars. A well-known example, the Cone Nebula within the bright galactic star-forming region NGC 2264, was captured in this close-up view from the Hubble Space Telescope's Advanced Camera for Surveys. While the Cone Nebula, about 2,500 light-years away in Monoceros, is around 7 light-years long, the region pictured here surrounding the cone's blunted head is a mere 2.5 light-years across. In our neck of the galaxy that distance is just over half way from the Sun to its nearest stellar neighbor, Alpha Centauri. The massive star NGC 2264 IRS, seen by Hubble's infrared camera in 1997, is the likely source of the wind sculpting the Cone Nebula and lies off the top of the image. The Cone Nebula's reddish veil is produced by glowing hydrogen gas.

Field of Rosette
Field of Rosette
(C) Rogelio Bernal Andreo (Deep Sky Colors)
What surrounds the florid Rosette nebula? To better picture this area of the sky, the famous flowery emission nebula on the far right has been captured recently in a deep and dramatic wide field image that features several other sky highlights. Designated NGC 2237, the center of the Rosette nebula is populated by the bright blue stars of open cluster NGC 2244, whose winds and energetic light are evacuating the nebula's center. Below the famous flower, a symbol of Valentine's Day, is a column of dust and gas that appears like a rose's stem but extends hundreds of light years. Across the above image, the bright blue star just left and below the center is called S Monocerotis. The star is part of the open cluster of stars labelled NGC 2264 and known as the Snowflake cluster. To the right of S Mon is a dark pointy featured called the Cone nebula, a nebula likely shaped by winds flowing out a massive star obscured by dust. To the left of S Mon is the Fox Fur nebula, a tumultuous region created by the rapidly evolving Snowflake cluster. The Rosette region, at about 5,000 light years distant, is about twice as far away as the region surrounding S Mon. The entire field can be seen with a small telescope toward the constellation Monoceros.

The Cone Nebula Neighborhood
The Cone Nebula Neighborhood
(C) Adam Block and Tim Puckett
Cosmic clouds of hydrogen gas and dust abound in this gorgeous skyscape, stretching through Monoceros in the neighborhood of The Cone Nebula. A dark, obscuring dust cloud, the simple, sculpted shape of the Cone Nebula is near the lower left edge. Surrounded by the red glow of hydrogen gas, the cone points up, toward bright, blue-white S Monocerotis, a quadruple system of very massive, hot stars. S Mon itself is also surrounded by intriguing red emission nebulae characteristic of star forming regions while above and to the right of S Mon, expansive dark markings on the sky are silhouetted by a larger region of fainter emission. Yellowish open star cluster Trumpler 5 is below picture center, with the striking blue reflection nebula, IC 2169 near the center right edge. The curious compact cometary shape near the bottom edge is Hubble's Variable Nebula. Over 31 hours of exposure time went into this truly remarkable, 2.5 degree wide, color mosaic.

Christmas Tree Cluster Cone Nebula
Christmas Tree Cluster
(C) R Jay Gabany
Cone Nebula
(C) Subaru Telescope
Christmas Tree Cluster Cone Nebula
Christmas Tree Cluster
(C) Rolf Geissinger
Cone Nebula
(C) Dieter Willasch
Fox Fur Nebula Fox Fur Nebula
The Fox Fur Nebula from CFHT
(C) Jean-Charles Cuillandre (CFHT) & Giovanni Anselmi (Coelum Astronomia), Hawaiian Starlight
The Fox Fur Nebula
(C) Russell Croman
Fox Fur Nebula Cone Nebula
The Fox Fur Nebula
(C) Anglo-Australian Observatory,
Photograph by David Malin
Cone Nebula
(C) ACS Science & Engineering Team
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「ウィキペディア(wikipedia):フリー百科事典」より文章引用。
コーン星雲. (2013, April 11). In Wikipedia.
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