|Astronomers using the combined power of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter
Array (ALMA) telescope in Chile and NASA’s Hubble and Spitzer space telescopes
have discovered a far-flung trio of primitive galaxies nestled inside an
enormous blob of primordial gas nearly 13 billion light-years from Earth.
It's possible the trio will eventually merge into a single galaxy similar
to our own Milky Way.
"This exceedingly rare triple system, seen when the universe was only
800 million years old, provides important insights into the earliest stages
of galaxy formation during a period known as 'cosmic dawn,' when the universe
was first bathed in starlight,” said Richard Ellis of the California Institute
of Technology, Pasadena, a member of the research team.
Researchers first detected this object, which appeared to be a giant bubble
of hot, ionized gas, in 2009. Dubbed Himiko (after a legendary queen of
ancient Japan), it is nearly 10 times larger than typical galaxies of that
era and comparable in size to our own Milky Way. Subsequent infrared observations
with NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope provided more clues about the object's
mass, suggesting Himiko might represent a single galaxy, which would make
it uncharacteristically massive for that period of the early universe.
“The new observations revealed that, rather than a single galaxy, Himiko
harbors three distinct, bright sources, whose intense star formation is
heating and ionizing this giant cloud of gas,” said Masami Ouchi, an associate
professor at the University of Tokyo who led the international team of
astronomers from Japan and the United States.
New data from ALMA, Hubble and Spitzer also led astronomers to speculate
that Himiko could be made up almost entirely of primordial gas, a mixture
of the light elements hydrogen and helium, which were created in the Big
Bang event that gave birth to our universe. If correct, this would be a
landmark discovery signaling the detection of a primordial galaxy seen
during its formation.