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3C58 (Pulsar)


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3C58
Pulsar (パルサー)

星座 (Constellation)

カシオペア座 (Cas) (Cassiopeia)


距離 (Distance)
10,000光年 (10,000 light-years)

3C58 is a pulsar located 10,000 light years from the Earth in the constellation Cassiopeia.

3C58 (Pulsar) : Picture

3C58 (Pulsar)
3C58 (Pulsar)
(C) NASA/CXC/SAO/S.Murray et al.
Chandra's image of 3C58, the remains of a supernova observed on Earth in 1181 AD, shows a rapidly rotating neutron star embedded in a cloud of high-energy particles. The data revealed that the neutron star, or pulsar, is rotating about 15 times a second, and is slowing down at the rate of about 10 microseconds per year.

A comparison of the rate at which the pulsar is slowing down and its age indicate that the 3C58 pulsar, one of the youngest known pulsars, is rotating just about as fast now as when it was formed. This is in contrast to the Crab pulsar, which was formed spinning much more rapidly and has slowed to about half its initial speed. Furthermore, the total X-ray luminosity of the 3C58 pulsar and its surrounding nebula is a thousand times weaker than that of the Crab and its surrounding nebula.

Scientists hope that further study of the similarities and differences in the behavior of these two pulsars, which are approximately the same ages, will shed light on the process by which they are formed, and how they pump energy into space for thousands of years after the explosion.

3C58: Pulsar Gives Insight on Ultra Dense Matter and Magnetic Fields
3C58: Pulsar Gives Insight on Ultra Dense Matter and Magnetic Fields
(C) NASA/CXC/SAO/P.Slane et al.
The pulsar in 3C58 can't be seen directly in this image, but its presence has been deduced from an earlier Chandra discovery, and confirmation at radio wavelengths, of rapid (66 millisecond) pulsations. The present observations provide strong evidence that the surface of the 3C58 pulsar has cooled to a temperature of slightly less than a million degrees Celsius.

The relatively "cool" surface temperature was a surprise to astrophysicists, since the standard theory for pulsar cooling predicts a much warmer surface at an age of only 830 years. The cooling of a pulsar is due to collisions between neutrons and other subatomic particles in its ultra dense interior where one teaspoonful of matter can weigh more than a billion tons. These collisions produce neutrinos that carry away energy as they escape from the star.

The speed of the cooling in 3C58 indicates that the interaction between neutrons and protons are not well understood at the extreme conditions in pulsars, or that an exotic form of subatomic matter is present.

3C58 (Pulsar) 3C58 (Pulsar)
3C58 (Pulsar)
(C) NASA/CXC/SAO/S.Murray et al.
3C58 (Pulsar)
(C) NASA/CXC/SAO/S.Murray et al.
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